Three Months GeoInformatics Training Course

A. Principles of Remote Sensing

Definition of Remote sensing, Advantages and limitations, Remote sensing process, Electromagnetic Radiation,(EMR): EMR Spectrum and its properties, EMR wavelength regions and their applications, Atmospheric windows, Interaction of EMR with matter, Spectral signatures, Resolutions: Spectral, Spatial, Temporal and Radiometric.

Introduction to Thermal Infrared Radiation Properties: Kinetic Heat, Temperature, Radiant Energy and Flux, methods of transferring heat, Thermal properties of terrain: Thermal Capacity, Thermal conductivity, Thermal Inertia, Thermal Infrared Multispectral scanners, Thermal IR Remote sensing examples.

Passive Microwave Sensors, Active Microwave Sensors, Side looking RADAR, Scatterometer Orbits of satellite, Keppler’s laws of motion, IRS Series of Satellites, LANDSAT, SPOT, IKONOS, QUICKBIRD, MODIS, RADARSAT, NOAA, TERRA, MOS and ERS, Brief introduction to Weather and Communication Satellites Spectral Signature and its Response: of Soil, Vegetation and Water, Basics of visual interpretation of satellite images.

Aerial Photography
Fundamentals of aerial photography, Vertical and Oblique aerial photography, Aerial cameras, Photogrammetry; Basic concepts of scale, object height and length, object area and perimeter, grayscale, tone/color of objects, Photo interpretation techniques, Stereo photogrammetry and stereovision, Parallax bar and its applications. Photographic System: Cameras, Sensor classification: Active and Passive, along track and across track scanners, Infrared Scanners, Thermal Sensors and Microwave Sensors.

1. Jensen, J.R., “Remote Sensing of the Environment – An Earth Resources Perspective”, Pearson Education, Inc. (Singapore) Pvt. Ltd., Indian edition, Delhi, 2000
2. George Joseph, “Fundamentals of remote sensing”, Universities press (India) Pte Ltd., Hyderabad, 2003
1. Sabins, F.F. Jr., ‘Remote Sensing – Principles and Interpretation”, W.H. Freeman & Co., 2002 Edition.
2. Reeves, Robert G., “Manual of Remote Sensing, Vol. I, American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Falls Church, Virginia, USA
3. Lillesand, Thomas M. and Kiefer, Ralph, W., “Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation”, 4 Edition, John,Wiley and Sons, New York, 2000
4. Rampal, K.K., Handbook of Aerial Photography and Interpretation, Concept Publishing Company, NewDelhi, 1999

B. Principles of Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

Basic Concepts about spatial information, Philosophy and definition of GIS, features, pictures, variables: points, lines, areas, Position on the earth; Basics of map. Fundamentals of Data Storage, Information Organization and Data Structure Basic File Structures;

Tabular Databases; Advantages of Databases, Types of Databases- hierarchical systems, network systems, relational systems and Object-oriented database systems (OODS), Data Models-Entity Relationship model, Relational Model, Data Structures; Raster Structures, Vector Structures. Introduction to Database System: Definition, purpose, data abstraction, instances, schema, DDL, DML,database manager, database administrator, and basic concepts of entity, relationship and primary key.

Introductory concept Introductory concepts, Basic components of computers, Hardware, Software requirements for GIS Processors, Internet, Operating Systems, Programming languages GIS and Remote Sensing data, Formats & exchange etc: Image storage formats, Data retrieval & Data compression techniques.

Data Structure
Data Structures: Geographical data; spatial & non spatial, geographical data in computers, Data Models: Spatial data Model – (i) Cartographic Map model – Raster structure, Quad tree Tessellation (ii) Geo-relational Model –Vector Data structure, Advantages & Disadvantages of Both Data base structure: Non spatial: Hierarchical structure, Network structure, Relational Structure, Spatial Data Bases: Hybrid Data Model, Integrated Data Model Data Quality and Errors in GIS: Nature of geographic data – types of uncertainty in a GIS, Sources of Errors in GIS data base: Errors through processing, errors associated with overlaying of polygons, Data Quality parameters: Positional accuracy, Attribute accuracy, Logical consistency, Completeness Lineage.

Handling Errors in GIS, Normalization in GIS, Levels of Measurements: Nominal, Ordinal, Ratio and Interval, Advantages of RDBMS over DBMS.

1. Goodchild, M.F. (1978) - Statistical Aspects of the Polygon Overlay Problems, in Harvard papers on GIS, Ed. G. Dulton, Vol. 6, Addison Wesley and Reading Press.
2. Mary Summer, Computers: Concepts and Uses, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey.
3. Mac Donald, A. 1999, Building a Geodatabase, Redlands CA: ESRI Press.

1. Sanghavi, Hitesh (1998) Oracle Miracles, Express computers methods, 1998.
2. Bonham Carter G.F (1994) GIS for Geoscientists: Modeling with GIS Pergamon Publications.
3. Samet, H. 1990, The Design and Analysis of Spatial Data Structures, Addison–Wesley.
4. A. Silberschats, Henry F. Korth “Database System Concepts”

C. Cartography & Digital Mapping

Basic Concept of cartography, Categories of maps, Interpretation of topographic maps, Cartographic databases, data measurement, cartographic design issues, color and pattern, map lettering, map compilation, map scale, Generalization, symbolization, dot, isopleths and choropleth mapping, multivariate and dynamic mapping, map production, methods of map composing and printing, Basic Assumptions of projection system, Map Projections, Grouping of map projections: conic projection, cylindrical projection, Zenithal, Projection Types: Mercator, Transverse Mercator, Polyconic, Lambert, Orthomorphic, UTM Projections and their comparison, Choosing a Map Projection, Map Projection transformation, Analysis and visualization of distortion, Visualization of geospatial data: Design aspects, Multi scale and geometric aspects scale, dissemination of (visualized) geospatial data, data products, use and users of products, Various issues in map visualization. Computer Cartography, the nature of Data, Database and Data structures, Data Input: Method of data capture, digitisation and scanning method, Techniques and procedure for digitising, Vector and Raster; Data output: Screen display system, file organization and formats, rectification of digital maps, software for digital mapping.

1. Keates, J.S. (1973): Cartographic Design and production, London, Longman
2. Ramesh, P. A. (2000): Fundamentals of Cartography, Concept Publishing Co., New Delhi.
3. Rampal, K.K. (1993): Mapping and Compilation, Concept Publishing Co.,New Delhi.
4. Anson, R.W. & Ormeling, F.J. (1993), Basic Cartography, Vol. 1, 2

D. Basics of Global Positioning System(GPS)

Introduction of Global Positioning System, Satellite constellation, GPS signals and data, Geo-positioning-Basic Concepts. NAVSTAR, GLONASS , Indian geodetic System,Control Segment, Space Segments, User Segment, GPS Positioning Types- Absolute Positioning, Differential Positioning, GPS Application in Surveying and Mapping, Navigation Military, Location Based Services, Vehicle tracking.

E. Lidar Technology

Lidar Sensors and Data, Lidar Systems and Calibration, Lidar Data Processing, Accuracy Assessment and Quality Control, Lidar Applications - Topographic Mapping, Lidar Applications,:- Agriculture, Forestry, Corridor Mapping Lidar Applications - Feature Extraction.


1. Leicka. A.: GPS Satellite Surveying, John Wiley & Sons, use. New York
2. Terry-Karen Steede, 2002, Integrating GIS and the Global Positioning System, ESRI Press
3. N.K.Agrawal Essentials of GPS, Spatial Network Pvt Ltd 2004
4. Sathish Gopi , GPS and Surveying using GPS

F. Remote Sensing Lab

1. Arial photograph interpretation
2. Visual interpretation of multispectral and panchromatic image
3. Histogram stretching, linear, non linear stretching, histogram equalization
4. Image rectification
5. Image classification, supervised and unsupervised classifications
6. Image fusion
7. Stitching of scenes
8. Change detection from multi-date imagery

G. GIS Lab

1. Analog to Digital Conversion – Scanning methods
2. Introduction to software
3. Digital database creation – Point features, Line features, Polygon features
4. Data Editing-Removal of errors – Overshoot & Undershoot, Snapping
5. Data Collection and Integration, Non-spatial data attachment working with tables
6. Dissolving and Merging
7. Clipping, Intersection and Union
8. Buffering techniques
9. Spatial and Attribute query and Analysis
10. Contouring and DEM
11. Advanced Analyses – Network analyses
12. Layout Generation and report

H. Cartography Lab

1. Construction of different types of scales
2. Construction of different types of map projection: Conical projection, Cylindrical Projection, WGS 84
3. Preparation of UTM grid
4. Base Map
5. Designing and Symbolization
6. Analog to Digital Conversion
7. Analysis of Toposheet
8. Updation of maps from Satellite Imagery

I. GPS Lab

1. Introduction to GPS and initial setting
2. Creating codes and attribute table for GPS receiver
3. Point Data collection using GPS with different datum
4. Line data collection using GPS and measurements
5. GPS data collection for area calculation
6. GPS Data collection in DGPS mode
8. Post processing of the GPS data
9. GPS and GIS integrations output preparation